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31 Aug 2017
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Published on: 16 May 2019 by beauty33

A Rich Variety of CD Biomarkers

CD is short for cluster of differentiation. Cluster of differentiation is cell surface marker that appears or disappears in the normal differentiation and maturation of white blood cells (including platelets, vascular endothelial cells, etc.) at different lineage (lineage), different stages and the activation process. They are mostly transmembrane proteins or glycoproteins, including extracellular, transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. Some clusters of differentiation are "anchored" to the cell membrane by inositol phospholipids (IP) connection. A few clusters of differentiation are carbohydrate haptens.

Cluster of differentiation is involved in important physiological and pathological processes. For example: (1) Mutual recognition of immune cells in the process of immune response, immune cell antigen recognition, activation, proliferation and differentiation, immune effect function; (2) The differentiation of hematopoietic cells and regulation of hematopoietic process; (3) The occurrence of inflammation; (4) The migration of cells, such as tumor cells metastasis. Here we will introduce some important CD biomarkers:

1. CD10 marker

CD10 is also known as neutral endopeptidase (NEP), gp100, enkephalinase, common acute lymphocyte leukemia antigen (CALLA) or neprilisyn, with a molecular weight of 100kD. CD10 marker is the marker of specific types of lymphoma, widely distributed in pre-b lymphocytes, pre-t lymphocytes, some granulocytes, bone marrow stromal cells, epithelial cells, some smooth muscle and cardiac epithelial cells, brain and fibroblast. It is a metalloproteinase, ligand unknown. In clinical practice, CD10 is used for the pediatric common type ALL with good prognosis and classification of lymphoma, as well as immunotoxin therapy. In autogenous bone marrow transplantation, CD10 can be used to remove leukemia cells and purify bone marrow blood.

2. CD11b marker

There are three subtypes of CD11: CD11a, CD11b and CD11c. CD11b, also known as mac-1 (Mo1, CR3), integrin a chain, C3biR, integrin aM or aM 2, has a molecular weight of 170KD and is expressed in granulocytes, monocytes, NK cells, T lymphocyte subtypes and B lymphocyte subtypes. CD11b marker can be used in clinical diagnosis of LFA -1 immunodeficiency. After the formation of Mac-1 by CD11b and CD18, it can regulate the binding phagocytosis of iC3b or igG-coated particles, regulate the interaction between monocytes, neutrophils and activated endothelial cells, and also regulate the migration, chemotaxis and apoptosis of lymphocytes. The CD11b/CD18 complex plays a role in the respiratory burst of neutrophils and the threshing process induced by other receptors such as Fc?R or C5a.

3. CD14 marker

CD14, also known as LPS -R or Mo-2, has a molecular weight of 52-55kD and is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. It belongs to the GPI-like glycoprotein family and its ligand is endotoxin /LPS.CD14 is the receptor of endotoxin /LPS and LBP complex, and acts as the receptor of lipopolysaccharide to activate endothelial cells.

Clinically, CD14 marker is the best marker of monocytes/macrophages and can also be used for leukemia immunotyping. Soluble CD14 can be detected in serum and urine, so it can be used for the diagnosis of LPS-related inflammatory diseases. The presence of soluble CD14 (2~4ug/ml) in the urine of patients with nephritis is associated with endotoxin shock.

4. CD20 marker

CD20, also known as B1, Bp35 or Leu-16, has a molecular weight of 33~37kD and is expressed on b-line cells (not including mature plasma cells). It belongs to the TM4SF, CD20/ Fc?R I? families and is a membrane protein that transmembrane for 4 times, ligand unknown. CD20 marker is the marker of B lymphocyte, which can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of leukemia and lymphoma.

5. CD117 marker

CD117, a receptor protein encoded by proto-oncogene with tyrosine kinase growth factor, is a specific marker for immunohistochemical examination of gastrointestinal stromal tumor and an indispensable reference index for the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. It is generally diagnosed in combination with CD34. CD117 marker can also be used to identify mast cell tumors in lymphoma and as a marker for some testicular germinoma.

Cluster of differentiation is involved in important physiological and pathological processes. The research on it is of great significance to the advancement of biological science. We will introduce more biomarkers in the future.

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